Tuesday, 5 October 2021

TRIBUTE

Sikil Bhaskaran

A veteran violin accompanist                                                                                         Lakshmi Anand


Veteran violinist Sikkil R. Bhaskaran passed away on 20 July 2021. Dedicated exclusively to accompaniment, the artists he shared the stage with straddle generations and read like a who’s who of Carnatic music—from Maharajapuram Viswanatha Iyer, K.B. Sundarambal and M.M. Dandapani Desigar to Sikkil Mala Chandrasekhar, N. Vijay Siva and Palghat Ramprasad. He is known, along with his contemporary, Tanjavur Upendran, for bringing to light numerous rising talents, Mandolin U. Shrinivas being particularly noteworthy, and encouraging other stalwarts to play for these youngsters. Bhaskaran had the distinction of having played for as many as three successive generations of multiple musical families and several august lineages.

Bhaskaran was born on 4 May 1936 in the town of Sikkil (located between Tiruvarur and Nagapattinam) to Rajagopalan and Vedavalli, in an Isai Vellalar Pillai family, a community involved in music for generations. Bhaskaran lost his father, a military man, at around age four. His mother, younger brother and he were then financially supported by Bhaskaran’s grandfather, Sikkil Ramasamy Pillai, who was a noted nattuvanar in Bharatanatyam. While watching the natya sevai on a visit to the Sikkil temple, Prof. P. Sambamoorthy developed an acquaintance with Ramasamy Pillai whose teaching style he liked and suggested that Pillai join Triveni Kala Sangam in Delhi. In 1960, Ramasamy Pillai did so. He later received the Central Sangeet Natak Akademi Puraskar in 1972, along with Begum Akhtar and T. Mukta among others.

Sikkil Bhaskaran accompanying his guru Kumbakonam Rajamanickam Pillai, 

along with Kumbakonam Rammurthy (mridangam) and Arupadi Natesa Iyer (khanjira)

Little Bhaskaran was studying in the local primary school in Sikkil, when representatives from the Shakti Nataka Sabha, then a new theatre company based in Pudukkottai, came scouting for indigent but talented children who could dance and sing. Bhaskaran was selected after he sang a song of M.K. Tyagaraja Bhagavatar. Thanks to his grandfather, Bhaskaran was also familiar with dance. Given their financial circumstances, Bhaskaran’s mother allowed the company to take her son, when they promised food, upkeep, training and even a small stipend. Ramasamy Pillai’s affiliation with the sabha, probably made the decision easier. Bhaskaran was barely 9 or 10 then and in 4th or 5th grade. That was the end of formal schooling for him. At Shakti Nataka Sabha, he was taught the Tamil and Sanskrit languages in addition to music, dance (for which Ramasamy Pillai was the instructor) and acting.  Some famous alumni of that sabha were Sivaji Ganesan, M.N. Nambiar, S.V. Subbiah and S.A. Natarajan. Bhaskaran remembered a play named Kaveen Kanavu where Sivaji Ganesan carried him in his arms while delivering the dialogue—Bhaskaran played the part of a child called Sumathi. He  donned many such roles—as young Rama and young Muruga. He reminisced that, on the day India achieved Independence, he, along with others from the sabha, were lodged at Varada Muthiappan Street in Georgetown, and they were all taken in a car to see Chennai city. 

At the sabha, Bhaskaran saw and heard the violin for the first time; he was taught the bare basics and decided that he wanted to take up the violin exclusively. He returned to Sikkil, having been with the troupe for some two years or so. Residing in Sikkil with his family, he began his music training with Tiruvarur Subbaiyer— travelling by bus to Tiruvarur for classes. A couple of years later, he moved to Mayavaram and began traditional gurukulavasam with Mayavaram Govindaraja Pillai. How he was introduced to Govindaraja Pillai is not known exactly but the Isai Vellalar community was a close-knit one and it is possible the acquaintance was facilitated by Ramasamy Pillai. It was on a trip back home to Sikkil at the time of this tutelage that Bhaskaran performed his first concert. A person had visited his home and requested Bhaskaran to play in a concert for which he could not find a violinist. Given the organiser’s earnestness and the family’s dire straits, Bhaskaran agreed to do so. By the time he got back to Mayavaram, his guru had got word that Bhaskaran had played very well in the concert. Govindaraja Pillai advised  his disciple to quickly begin playing well while the people felt that he was already doing so!

With ‘Hemambikadasa’ Perur Subramanya Deekshitar,

Upendran and Tanjavur Venkatesan (1950s)


This was a gurukulavasam in a very traditional sense. Bhaskaran would wake up early in the morning at around four, clean and clear the cowshed, wash the cows, milk them and take in the milk to Govindaraja Pillai’s wife. He would then finish his ablutions and sit down for practice. As and when needed, if the cart driver was not available, he would also drive the bullock cart. Later in the day, when Govindaraja Pillai was done with his morning routine, he would ask Bhaskaran to bring the violin and then proceed to make corrections to what the boy had played earlier that morning. Much of the rest of the learning was on the go, by accompanying his guru on concerts and extensive travel.

It was the general practice of well-established artists to have a student or two tag along with them. An unforgettable camaraderie would develop among the students stemming from their travelling together frequently, usually in a railway  compartment different from that of the guru. Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, till his last days, always addressed Bhaskaran as “arai ticket” (half ticket), since he had seen him several times as a young boy travelling on half-fare!

When Govindaraja Pillai’s guru, Kumbakonam Rajamanickam Pillai, visited him in Mayavaram, he heard Bhaskaran practising in another room. After enquiring as to who it was, he told Govindaraja Pillai that he would mentor Bhaskaran himself thenceforth. From then on, until Bhaskaran’s marriage, he underwent gurukulavasam with Rajamanickam Pillai in Kumbakonam. Rajamanickam Pillai was most encouraging of Bhaskaran and would suggest concert opportunities for him.

Bhaskaran was married in 1962 to Vasantha (who hailed from Kumbakonam), in Swamimalai. Rajamanickam Pillai not only attended the wedding but told Bhaskaran that his firstborn would be a boy and suggested he be named Swaminathan—that in fact happened, and Bhaskaran’s eldest son is Swaminathan.

Bhaskaran (violin), G.N. Balasubramaniam (vocal) and Tiruvarur Nagarajan (mridangam)


A relatively early concert that Bhaskaran would often mention was accompanying T. Brinda and T. Mukta for All India Radio’s (AIR) National Programme of Music, aired from Tiruvaiyaru. It was notable for two aspects—he was yet to receive any grading from All India Radio, and secondly, the opportunity arose because many other violinists had declined to play for the sisters since they were female.By this time, Bhaskaran was in high demand, and the couple decided to settle down in Kumbakonam as it had better train connectivity than Sikkil. Bhaskaran, mridangist Tanjavur Upendran and flautist N. Ramani were all compatriots from Tanjavur district and the best of friends from their teens and remained so for life. Given that needs were minimal, all were sufficiently provided for by performing in  the several villages within the district itself for the various festivals conducted there. The visiting artists would usually be put up on the front porticos of the large houses. Travelling outside of the district was a bonus rather than an abject necessity for these artists then.

Bhaskaran’s son recalls his father telling him that it was the local bullock cart drivers who, those days, would provide them information as to which artist performed in which village, as well as the audience response. The cart drivers would add their own opinions in good measure, explaining what facet of each artist they liked. This throws light on the fact that temples probably served as the most prolific place of patronage, and classical music had a popular reach and also an impact on the general public. It brings to mind posters of old movies that featured well-known singing stars and the number of songs in them—it was a huge selling point. Most of these songs had a strong Carnatic base.

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Sunday, 3 October 2021

 Sruti - Next Generation Feature

 Interview with Aditya Prakash

A South Indian living in Los Angeles, singing Carnatic music in the western world defined who Aditya Prakash was, over a decade ago. A disciple of gurus from multiple banis, Aditya has grown over the years and now, has created a niche for himself in the world of Carnatic fusion. Collaborating with artists of various genres, from Bharatanatyam dancers, to jazz instrumentalists, he has released many albums and singles on various digital platforms. 

In 2010, Aditya Prakash founded the ‘Aditya Prakash Ensemble’ consisting of artists from different genres, who have performed together in many prestigious venues around the globe. Diaspora Kid, released in 2020, is the latest album from this team.

In an interview with Vibha Krishnakumar for Sruti, the multipotentialite artist, talks about his guru, his experiences while collaborating with artists, as well as his inspirations to create his unique music.




How was the ‘Aditya Prakash Ensemble’ formed? What was the idea behind it?

The Aditya Prakash Ensemble was formed from the experience of college friends living together, conversing and being curious to explore a space where our different musical languages met. We all met at UCLA and were undergraduates in the Ethnomusicology program. It was not formed with the intention of creating a ‘band’ - that happened later. The hunger to learn, share and just be around each other first and foremost as friends, and then musicians, is what makes this group very special to me. The act of actually making music happened in my second year of college. During a ‘jam session’ party, I was called up to the mic to sing along with a keyboardist, bassist, drummer and guitarist. I was hesitant at first, I didn’t know what I could do or how I could keep up with them; but something special happened that night. Not only did the music click between us musicians, but the audience in attendance stopped all side conversations, perked up to listen and got involved with the music they were hearing. From then on, I was confident that we needed to do more than just ‘jam’.




What or who inspired you to collaborate with artists of various genres?

My mother, Viji Prakash, a prolific Bharatanatyam dancer and guru in North America, used to regularly collaborate with a variety of artists from the traditions of Kathak, jazz tap, break dancing, belly dancing, beat boxing, gospel singing, and flamenco to name a few. Thus, my upbringing at home was a huge influence on my collaborative and experimental nature. 

You went on a tour with Pt. Ravi Shankar when you were a teenager. Did that alter the way you looked at music henceforth? If yes, has it withstood the test of time?

Being around Pt. Ravi Shankar was an eye-opening experience for me. It was a blessing to be around someone of his stature who was so humble, curious, and excited to share his knowledge. It opened me up to the world of Hindustani music and I fell in love with it. I was also introduced to jazz and Western classical musicians through Raviji and his daughter, Anoushka Shankar. Before that moment, I had no exposure to cross-genre collaboration and hence kept the idea of “fusion” at a distance from me – the only setting I saw myself performing music in was in the Carnatic kutcheri essentially.  

 


Through Raviji, I saw that a serious, and rigorously trained classical musician can also branch out beyond the “traditional” format of presenting music and can attract a diverse audience and be relevant beyond a very specific community of Indians. There was a feeling and confidence that he gave me, that I could be a Carnatic musician, but I could also step into other musical settings with ease and open this music out to a wider audience base. Raviji always advised me that first and foremost, my Carnatic training and involvement should never waver or lose its depth in the pursuit of a career of exciting collaborations. I hear this urgent reminder in my head quite often!
 

How do you find the process of integrating Carnatic music with other forms of music?

The process of finding new spaces of expression is so fulfilling as an artist. Whether it happens in a Carnatic concert or in a collaborative experiment matters not. The process of integration of many different cultures and genres can really come to fruition only when there is a deep engagement in the styles involved. This engagement is a long and thorough process, through an extended collaboration with other artists entrenched in that tradition and/or living and imbibing the culture of the music style you seek to understand and dialogue with. To be honest, I think time, care and an intuitive understanding and internalization of the forms of music must take place; there is no other short-cut. 

After listening to a few of your tracks, I realized, many of them were a mix of Jazz and Carnatic music. Do you think they have more in common than what a layman understands?

 Jazz and Carnatic share a heavy importance on improvisation and give value to reacting to the moment by listening to your co-artists on stage. This listening can move the music in a direction that can be unexpected. I really connected with the rigor and virtuosity that went into their craft as jazz musicians. Improvisation was the most obvious link between both jazz and Carnatic music. Apart from that, the jazz modal approach fit nicely with the melakarta raga system. Although looking at raga as a scale is a skeletal and very basic approach, it gives us the language to connect and develop ideas melodically. Other than that, there is not much of a technical overlap, in jazz and Carnatic music, but I think any music can be influenced from another style if there is engagement and an honest approach as to why you are combining and integrating other styles.

Did your ensemble take inspiration from yesteryear jazz artists like Miles Davis and bands like Spyro Gyra for the tracks in your album ‘Diaspora Kid’?

 I was definitely inspired by artists like Herbie Hancock and Miles Davis, as they are genius artists in their craft. Another huge influence on the album Diaspora Kid, is Tigran Hamasyan, who has found a way to re-imagine his Armenian folk tradition and his jazz tradition into a space that is uniquely his own. I seek to do that with my music as well. 

Not only have you had collaborations with musicians of other genres, but you have also collaborated with Carnatic musicians, as well as Bharatanatyam dancers. Has the learning process been the same in all the cases?

 I have primarily worked with my sister, and Bharatanatyam dancer, Mythili Prakash. Working with dance has given me the ability to better react to the moment and step out of the world of my own mind. In singing for dance, the singer’s ego must be curbed to a certain extent. This happens because I do not have all the control that I think I do as a ‘main artist’ in a kutcheri, where I am calling all the shots and deciding the direction of the music.  I have also gained immense growth from working with the brilliant Akram Khan who deepened my knowledge on these matters.


Over the years, how have your various gurus supported your endeavours?

 My initial vocal lessons began with Debur Shrivathsa, a well-known vocalist for Bharatanatyam, whose encouragement was a big reason I trudged through the tough early morning practices. Then I began learning from Rose Muralikrishnan, a music teacher in LA, who continued to foster my learning and encouraged me greatly. In 1999, my parents thought it would be good for me to get a further push in my training and took me to Chennai to study under vidushi Sugandha Kalamegham who instilled in me the importance of listening to the yesteryear masters. Under her guidance I started gaining the skills needed for manodharma. I also learnt mridangam under Neyveli Narayanan Sir in Chennai, whose guidance in laya and mridangam technique have helped me immensely.

 I delved more into my love for Carnatic music and there began an obsession with Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer’s music. My father saw this and took me to learn in the Semmangudi bani under the guidance of senior disciples of Semmangudi, gurus Palai Ramachandran and P.S. Narayanaswami. Both gurus took a deep interest in me and helped shape me and mould me into who I am today.  As I tried to balance a career in the USA, I felt a drift from Carnatic music as I found it harder to spend concentrated time in Chennai. It was at this point that I began mentorship under vidwan R.K Shriramkumar (RKS) and T.M Krishna (TMK).

Both RKS and TMK brought back the spark in Carnatic music for me – a similar obsession I had when I popped in my first Semmangudi cassette as a kid. They expounded on the detail and nuance of the movement of the gamakas, and the way they articulated this was astounding. They expanded my understanding of the phraseology of ragas like Begada, Kannadagowla and Todi, to name a few. I learned about the erasure of prayogams in certain ragas, the alteration in compositions that have taken place over generations. It is true when people say learning is a never ending journey; I feel extremely grateful to have such magnificent guides on my journey. 


Even as the pandemic situation eases, do you think you will continue with virtual collaborations?

I think virtual collaborations are a nice place holder for now. Nothing can ever replace the human connection we get from sharing music. I realized I had taken that connection for granted before the pandemic. However, now when the rare opportunity arises to do a live concert, or to have a live music creation session with another person I am filled with such a different sense of gratitude, excitement, joy and transcendence. I do think the virtual space is important to fill in the blanks or the gaps of time in which we ca not make in-person music, but it cannot be the full-time replacement. 

Interviewed by Vibha Krishnakumar for Sruti 



Friday, 1 October 2021

Music and the Mahatma

The Mahatma and his followers sang bhajans during the Dandi Salt March

Mahatma Gandhi may not have been a great connoisseur of music and arts, but he liked music, was moved by its emotion and was aware of the different genres. He felt that music was a unifying force to bind hearts and minds. Singing bhajans was a part of his weekly discourses. “If there was no music and no laughter in me, I would have died of this crushing burden of my work!” said Gandhiji when someone asked him if he had no liking for music.

When Gandhi was in South Africa he started evening prayers in the Ashram. The collection of bhajans they sang was published under the name of Nitivam Kavyo.

With Rabindranath Tagore (COURTESY: THE HINDU)

In his speech at the second Gujarat Educational Conference at Broach, on 20 October 1917, he said, “At times, we find restlessness in a large gathering. This can be arrested and calmed if all sing a national song. We have an example of the power of music in the fact that the boatman and other labourers raise, in unison, the cry of “Harahar” and “Allebeli” that helps them in their work. Music must get a place in our efforts at popular awakening. Music means rhythm, order; and its effect is electrical yet soothing. But unfortunately, we have neglected music. It has never become nationalised in the modern sense.” Gandhi felt that the group singing of national songs should be made compulsory and that great musicians should be invited to political conventions to teach mass music.

His idea of music was also connected to spirituality. In this context, he wrote a letter to Narayan Moreshwar Khare (music teacher at the Satyagraha Ashram in Sabarmati) on 7 October 1924. “I have gradually come to look upon music as a means of spiritual development. Please try your best to see that all of us sing our bhajans with a correct understanding of the sense. I cannot describe the joy I feel: music is a constructive activity, which uplifts the soul.”

M.S. Subbulakshmi at Gandhi’s prayer meeting

At Ahmedabad, in his address to Young India, on 15 April 1926 he stated, “If we use a broad interpretation on music; if we mean by it union, concord, mutual help, it may be said that in no department of life we can dispense with it. So if many more people send their children to the music class it will be part of their contribution to national uplift.”

When Mahatma Gandhi visited Chennai in 1946, Leela Sekar, who was then a young volunteer at the Hindi Prachar Sabha in T. Nagar, sang Mamava Pattabhi Rama— Muthuswami Dikshitar’s kriti in Manirangu. The Mahatma was mighty pleased. He asked her to sing the same song when she visited Sevagram in Wardha. He said he loved the slow pace of the song and the raga that dripped sweetness.

In a letter to Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore, Gandhi is said to have suggested that Hindustani music as well as Western music be given their due place at Shantiniketan along with Bengali music.

In 1947, just a few months after India’s Independence, M.S. Subbulakshmi received a message that it was Gandhi’s wish that she record his favourite bhajan Hari tum haro and send it to Delhi. Her husband T. Sadasivam sent word that as she was not familiar with the bhajan, she may not be able to do justice, and the Mahatma could perhaps get another singer to render it. Prompt came the response from Gandhi that he would rather have Subbulakshmi speak the bhajan than have anyone else sing it! So overnight, MS recorded Hari tum haro and sent it to him. A few months after that, in January, while listening to All India Radio, she heard the announcement of Gandhiji’s assassination, after which she heard her own voice singing Hari tum haro! She was distraught and fainted. It is said she would always choke and cry whenever she narrated this even years later.

According to Gandhi, in true music there is no place for communal differences and hostility. Music is a great example of national integration because we can see Hindus and Muslims sitting together and partaking in musical concerts. He often said, “We consider music in a narrow sens  to mean the ability to sing and play an instrument well, but, in its wider sense, true music is created only when life is attuned to a single tune and a single timebeat. Music is born only where the strings of the heart are not out of tune.” For Mahatma Gandhi true music was implicit in the warp and weft of khadi and in the sound and rhythm of the spinning wheel.

(The author is a Gandhian scholar, cultural activist, critic, and managing trustee, Aseema Trust)

ARPANAM 2021





Natyasankalpaa is delighted to present ‘Arpanam’ 2021.

Due to the prevailing pandemic we are forced to restrict audience numbers .We therefore kindly request you to

RSVP to this wats app number the specific dates and time slots that you will be attending ( specific seats will be allotted to you )

This invite is for you ONLY . If you choose to bring along someone kindly intimate the same .

Please keep your face mask on at all times .

We ensure complete covid protocol in the auditorium such as

Sanitizing the hall regularly ,distanced seating and temperature check . Sanitizers will be available at the venue.

In order to ensure a safe atmosphere and a joyous festival we request your kind cooperation for the above .

Looking forward to welcoming you to ‘Arpanam’

Urmila Sathyanarayanan

Dress code for ladies and gentlemen

(DRESSED UP)

Kanjeevarams , ornaments , accessories

It’s Navaratri afterall !!!!

Thursday, 30 September 2021

FROM THE EDITOR

16 October 2021 is the 38th birth anniversary of Sruti. Launched by its founder and first Editor-in-Chief, N. Pattabhi Raman in 1983, the magazine continues to serve the performing arts with zeal and commitment. The journey over the decades has not been a bed of roses, more so as it is a “niche magazine” catering to music, dance and theatre; hence the flow of ‘Vitamin M’ (Money) has mostly been small except during the music-dance season and festival months. The pandemic has, for its part, added to the financial crunch and we hope that our well-wishers, subscribers, advertisers and sponsors, will enthusiastically come forward to support us in our continuous endeavour to uphold the high standards that we have set in the service of the arts.

The cover stories this month focus on two renowned personalities who were not born into families with a music or dance lineage, but have made it big by dint of their passion and toil in their respective fields.

Veteran Hindustani vocalist Prabha Atre—born 13 September 1932—is a trailblazer in many ways, erudite, quiet unconventional and revolutionary in her approach to matters musical. In a candid interview she has shared her views with writer Shailaja Khanna—on music, its teaching, festivals, selection of artists, as well as the attitudes of artists and rasikas. The 89-year-old scholar-musician believes in “change”, in the need to re-assess tradition in the current context if it is to survive and flourish.

Multifaceted Sathyanarayana Raju is a Bharatanatyam dancer, choreographer, teacher and curator, combining style and substance. His is a story of struggle, grit and determination in the pursuit of his passion – truly an inspiring and moving journey to success.

In this issue we pay tribute to veteran violinist Sikkil Bhaskaran who passed away on 20 July this year. He chose to be an accompanist and in his long musical career of about seven decades, he accompanied several generations of musicians. He served the Carnatic music field in an unobtrusive manner.

We also have an interesting interview with scholar and cultural analyst Bharat Gupt, wherein he has given a call to project India’s ancient art and heritage as our national identity, as also to undertake steps to revive India’s ancient theatre and make it a hallmark of contemporary productions—as the Greeks have done.

We continue with our series on the Pancha sabhas of Lord Siva’s Dance. This time Sudha Seshayyan writes about the Rajata sabha in Madurai, and also throws light on savants who composed  songs on the Ponnambalam and the Velliambalam. Our thanks are due to famous artist Keshav for sharing two beautiful illustrations with Sruti for a crisp article on dance in Vaishnavite Tamil literature.

The month of September saw the passing away of two personalities whom Sruti admired—Keshav Desiraju and veteran Carnatic musician, scholar, teacher and composer B. Krishnamoorthy. Keshav Desiraju (66), was a distinguished bureaucrat deeply engaged with public health and clean governance. He was recently in the news in music and literary circles for his much acclaimed book titled Of Gifted Voice – The Life and Art of M.S. Subbulakshmi. He was a good friend of Sruti since its inception, and would visit the office on his trips to Chennai. He voluntarily took upon himself the task of indexing the contents of our magazine even some twenty years ago. During the lockdown he diligently completed indexing the issues of Sruti published till 2020, and emailed it to us. Sruti will ever remain grateful to him for this mammoth task.

To conclude on a positive note. Congratulations to Apsaras Arts, Singapore, for successfully organising  a marathon online-cum-live tenth anniversary celebration  of Indian dance and music via the Indian Performing Arts Convention (IPAC). The recent expansion of its scope and its efforts to constantly improve standards in the performing arts in the region, are  indeed commendable. All the best!

S. JANAKI