Friday, 16 November 2018

Ileana Citaristi

                                                               Birthdays & Anniversaries

Thursday, 15 November 2018

K. V. Narayanaswamy

                                                            Birthdays & Anniversaries
15.11.1923 - 1.4.2002

KV Narayanaswamy (1923-2002)

(Tribute by Sruti editor and others on 5 November 2017)

V Navaneet Krishnan's vocal concert on 4 November 2017

The late Sangita Kalanidhi KV Narayanaswami was and continues to be a role model for young vocalists in Carnatic music, for the sheer purity of his voice, his exquisite sruti suddham, and his mastery of raga and tala. The most complete and best known of Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar’s disciples, KVN had the extraordinary ability to move his listeners with the emotional appeal of his chaste rendering of a wide repertoire of songs by a whole range of composers across languages.

It was said of his music that he became “immersed in his music, thoroughly forgetting himself and thereby providing a divine experience for the listener.” His career as a performing musician was in two parts, his strong vibrant vocalisation in the first phase being replaced after a major illness by an altogether mellower, softer style of singing, still based as much on complex, precise swara singing as nuanced rendering of alapana and niraval. His delivery of kritis was impeccable, too.

KV Narayanaswamy was born in the village of Chandrasekharapuram in Palakkad district in a family of considerable musical ancestry on an auspicious Friday, 16 November 1923. He was the second child of Kollengode Viswanathayyar, an accomplished violinist, and Muthulakshmi Ammal.

KVN started learning varnams and kirtanams under his father and grandfather at the age of five, joined school at Palakkad and studied there until the fifth form. He then continued his studies at Coimbatore. Around the age of twelve, he became attracted to theatre and cinema, playing the part of young Kannappan in the movie Kannappa Nayanar, a box office disaster that put an end to the lad’s acting ambitions.

KVN continued music lessons under Palghat Mani Iyer, C.S. Krishna Iyer, and Papa Venkataramayya. He was particularly fortunate in the interest Mani Iyer took in his progress. KVN’s mastery of the laya aspects of music in his adult years owed a great deal to this solid foundation. Not only was Mani Iyer a genius in the art of mridangam he was an accomplished vocalist as well. He taught KVN many songs, accompanying the boy on the mridangam during his practice sessions. What a marvellous preparation for a future as a concert musician!

When KVN started performing on stage, Mani Iyer accompanied him often, but an equally significant contribution by him was to introduce the young vocalist to Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar, whose principal disciple KVN was to become in the years that followed. To the end of his life, KVN treasured the years he spent in gurukulavasam with Ariyakudi.

KVN made his bow at the annual Tyagaraja aradhana festival at Tiruvaiyaru in 1940. He learnt a great deal by keenly observing Ariyakudi’s stage performances. Each concert was a learning experience for him.

In 1946, a short while after KVN joined Ariyakudi, he was drawn to the freedom struggle inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s leadership and left his guru for the ashram at Wardha, Maharashtra, but fortunately for Carnatic music, the inmates there persuaded him to return to music and Ariyakudi.

In 1947, he made his debut at the Madras Music Academy during its annual December season. The quality of his music that day impressed one and all into accepting him as a worthy successor to Ramanuja Iyengar.

Joining the Music College of Madras in 1962, KVN taught there for the next twenty years, before retiring as professor of music. He also taught and performed in the USA, where he first went to Wesleyan University in 1965 and later, in 1984, to San Diego University. He was the first Indian to be awarded a Fulbright scholarship for music.

Losing his wife Annapoornam in 1963, KVN later married Padma, his student at the Music College. After his retirement from the Music College, KVN took on a number of students whom he taught at home in a modern form of gurukulavasam. Many of them are carrying on the musical values he imparted with great affection.

L. Muthiah Bhagavatar

Birthdays & Anniversaries
15.11.1877 - 30.6.1945

Harikesanallur L. Muthiah Bhagavatar was something of a Superman in Carnatic music. His life is very difficult to condense into a short account for there were so many remarkable achievements in it. He overcame adverse circumstances to become a musician. He began his professional career as a vocalist who had also specialized in playing the mridanga and the gottuvadyam. He later switched to Harikatha and it was in that field that he acquired great fame. He was the moving spirit behind great music festivals in two locations in Madras Presidency for many years. He was a catalyst in the success of a series of pathbreaking music conferences in Tanjavur for two years. Somewhere in between he created new raga-s, imported several from Hindustani music and composed many songs in many forms such as kriti-s, varnam-s and tillana-s.

He founded a music school, was the Principal of two respected educational institutions and played a key role in bringing Swati Tirunal's works to the forefront of the concert arena. He wrote a major treatise on music which earned him the distinction of being the first musician to get a doctorate (and a genuine one at that). He moved with kings and commoners with equal ease all of whom loved him for his wit, his magnificent personality and his erudition. He earned enormous amounts and spent them on a luxurious lifestyle. He was also supremely generous, giving large amounts to causes that took his fancy. In short he was truly magnificent and his life was one exciting roller coaster journey. There was never a dull moment.

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 242

Wednesday, 14 November 2018

Rohini Bhate

Birthdays & Anniversaries
14.11.1924 - 10.10.2008

Nilamadhab Panigrahi

Birthdays & Anniversaries
14.11.1919 - 28.11.2012

Mega show by Saradhi

Music students of Saradhi Academy of Art and Culture presented 36 nottuswarams of Muthuswami Dikshitar in a programme titled Guruguham, on 7 September at the Sathguru Gnanananda Hall in Chennai. It was a mega show involving around 60 students of music (vocal, veena, violin, flute, keyboard and guitar). On that day, Saradhi also handed over its contribution to the Kerala Chief Minister’s flood relief fund, to the special officer Anu P. Chako.

Tuesday, 13 November 2018

C Sankaran Nair

Birthdays & Anniversaries
13.11.1915 - 24.4.1934

Ghantasala Puraskar for Legends

Veteran dancers and gurus—C.V. Chandrasekhar, Leela Samson, Vyjayantimala Bali, Saroja Vaidyanathan, Shanta and V.P. Dhananjayan, and Sobha Naidu—were honoured with the Kala Pradashini - Ghantasala Puraskar on the occasion of the 96th birth anniversary of Gana Gandharva Ghantasala, on 5 October at the Narada Gana Sabha hall in Chennai. The dance legends paid tribute to the musical genius of Ghantasala by performing to some of his songs. The awards were presented by the chief guests V.L. Indira Dutt, Managing Director, The KCP Limited, and G. Viswanathan, founder and Chancellor , VIT University, Vellore. The programme was organised by Parvathi and her husband Ravi Ghantasala, who run Kala Pradarshini.

Monday, 12 November 2018

Duddu Radhika's Releases Audio Album

Sri Kartikeya Gana Sabha organised a Carnatic music jam session titled Nada Yogam on the occasion of World Music Day on 21 June 2018 in Hyderabad. The two-hour session was anchored by musician D. Raghavachari (elder of the Hyderabad Brothers). He and Gudipoodi Srihari, senior journalist, released the thematic audio album of musician Duddu Radhika, titled Kovur Pancharatnas of Sadguru Tyagaraja. Radhika is also the founderpresident and managing trustee of Sri Kartikeya Gana Sabha.

Saturday, 10 November 2018

Journal on Laya in Carnatic Music

Indian Musicological Society, in association with the Music Forum, released a special journal Laya in Carnatic Music, on 21 October 2018 in Chennai. The first copy of the journal was presented by Sangita Kalanidhi Umayalpuram K. Sivaraman to Sangita Kalanidhi Sudha Ragunathan. Dr S. Sunder, Convener, Music Forum, Chennai Chapter; Ganeshkumar, Chairman, Music Forum; Snehal Muzoomdar, president of the Indian Musicological Society; and K.N. Ramaswamy, Director, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan; offered their felicitations. Articles on laya, written by eleven eminent authors, have been compiled and edited by senior mridangist Mannarkoil J. Balaji (2nd from R).

R. K. Venkatarama Sastry

Birthdays & Anniversaries

There is a school of thought that to be a great Carnatic musician, you need to be blessed with the serendipity of being born on the banks of the Kaveri in a pious family leading an austere lifestyle in the vicinity of a temple. A staple of vadu mangai and buttermilk and pazhaiyathu, or their Karnataka equivalent if you happened to wet your feet in the river closer to its origins, would help too, not to mention a strict regimen of sandhyavandanam three times a day.

By all accounts, musician, Harikatha artist, playwright and Sanskrit and Kannada scholar Rudrapatnam Krishna Sastry, who married singer Sannakka, daughter of vainika-violinist Bettadapura Narayanaswamy, in the early years of the 20th century, enjoyed just such a concatenation of circumstances. His first son, Rudrapatnam Krishna Venkatarama Sastry, was born on November 10th 1907 at Rudrapatnam, a stone’s throw from the waters of the sacred river. Venkatarama Sastry — whose birth centenary celebrations begin from 11th November 2007 with a music festival in Chennai — showed early signs of musical talent which his father nourished by exposing him to the best available training with distinguished guru-s.

(This Sanketi family from the Hassan district of Karnataka went on to produce some nine more musicians at last count. For a detailed account, see the R.K. Srikantan profile in Sruti 134, November 1995). After spending more than a decade learning violin from Veena Subbanna and Mysore T. Chowdiah, he moved to Madras in 1936, to join All India Radio when it was formed. 

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 278

Friday, 9 November 2018

C R Vyas

                                                               Birthdays & Anniversaries 
9.11.1924 - 10.1.2002

Chitresh Das

Birthdays & Anniversaries

9.11.1944 - 4.1.2015
Chitresh Das is a pioneer in introducing Kathak to the United States of America. His dream is to break through cultural barriers and ensure the continuation of the Kathak tradition at its highest artistic level.

His mission began in 1970 when he received a Whitney Fellowship through the University of Maryland to teach Kathak even while he was studying Modern dance. A year later, he was invited by sarod maestro Ali Akbar Khan to establish a Kathak dance programme at the renowned Ali Akbar College of Music in San Rafael, California. While there, Chitresh Das created three major dance-dramas in the Kathak idiom, with over 40 musicians and dancers participating— the first venture of the kind in the Indo-American performing arts scene.

Das founded his own dance company and school called Chhandam in the San Francisco Bay Area, in 1980. It now has additional branches in Boston and Toronto.

Trained from age nine Mishra, Chitresh was schooled in both major Kathak traditions and absorbed each in his artistry: the graceful and sensual elements of the Lucknow school, as well as the dynamic and powerful rhythms and movements of the Jaipur school. His performing career was launched in India when he was invited by sitar maestro Ravi Shankar to perform at the Rimpa Festival in Varanasi.

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 224

R. Vedavalli

Birthdays & Anniversaries
To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 254

Thursday, 8 November 2018

P L Deshpande

Birthdays & Anniversaries
8.11.1919 - 12.6.2000

Purushottam Laxman Deshpande was born on 8 November 1919 in Bombay to Laxman and Lakshmibai Deshpande of the Gaud Saraswat Brahmin community. Pu La did his schooling in Bombay, went to Fergusson College, Pune, for undergraduate studies and did an M.A. from Willingdon College, Sangli.

P.L. Deshpande, popularly known by his Marathi initials ‘Pu La’, strode the cultural firmament of Maharashtra like a colossus for over four decades. He was a multifaceted genius – illustrious Marathi writer, film and stage actor, singer, harmonium player, music composer and director, and an orator. He was also a noted philanthropist.

The Department of Posts issued a commemorative stamp in honour of P.L. Deshpande on 16 June 2002, his second death anniversary. The multicoloured stamp in the denomination of Rs. 4, has perf. 13.5, and was printed on Matt Chrome paper by photo offset process at Calcutta Security Printers.

The stamp has a portrait of Deshpande, and in the background is a picture of him in the role of Sant Tukaram in his play Tuka Mhane Ata. The cancellation, in the shape of a pen and a tambura, represents his writings and music. On the First Day Cover are pictures of some of his roles on the stage (see below).

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 345

Wednesday, 7 November 2018

Sulochana Brahaspati

                                                            Birthdays & Anniversaries

N. Channakeshaviah

                                                               Birthdays & Anniversaries

Sunanda Patnaik

                                                              Birthdays & Anniversaries

Tuesday, 6 November 2018

T. R. Mahalingam

6.11.1926 - 31.5.1986
Birthdays & Anniversaries

In 1937, after listening to T.R. Mahalingam for the first time, Mysore Vasudevachar is reported to have observed : "We all go in search of tala, but [Mahalingam] is like Lord Krishna the tala goes in search of him." Even as a child Mahalingam astounded everyone with his superb sense of rhythm and the intricatepermutations and combinations of the beat of music that imparted an exciting pulse to the melody he wrought out of the simplebamboo.

Pudukottai Dakshinamurthi Pillai and Palghat Mani Iyer were the incarnations of tala who, to use the great Karnataka composer's figure of speech, went in search of Mahalingam.

Asked once why he was willing to play with Mahalingam who couldn't be depended upon to fulfil his concert engagements, Mani Iyer had retorted with a rhetorical question : "Who else is there who can provide me work for my mind and hands in such a glorious manner?"

Mahalingam and Mani Iyer were made for each other. Their combination clicked most perfectly. Child prodigies and masters of laya both, they rode together the waves of musical creativity with the precision as well as the excitement of champion surfers.

As far as the public knew, his death was sudden and most unexpected. And most tragic. 

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 24 - 24-s

R. N. Tharanathan

                                                               Birthdays & Anniversaries

V. Subrahmaniam

Birthdays & Anniversaries

Subrahmaniam was born on 6 November 1934 to Meenakshi and S. Vaidyanatha Iyer in the Princely State of Tiruvananthapuram. The immediate family saw great promise in the child, when he identified ragas and picked up songs naturally without any formal training. His musical career formally began in 1951 at the age of 17 (somewhat late compared to the rush of today’s young prodigies), under the tutelage of Prof. Sankara Iyer from the Swati Tirunal Music Academy. Despite the late start, he soon went on to give his maiden performance in 1953, such was his confidence and performance skill. His real break came in 1956 when he came under the wing of the doyen and ace teacher, Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer, with whom he was closely associated for the next 50 years until Semmangudi passed away.

Subrahmaniam remained deeply devoted to his guru learning innumerable kritis and honing his music from years of association and absorption. By his own admission, he learnt many a subtle nuance and phrase while giving vocal support to his guru which he did for four decades. He held his guru’s pathantaram to be sacrosanct, never altering a single note from the way Semmangudi taught him. He gave vent to his creativity while exploring ragas, singing niraval and swara sancharas and won much applause during Semmangudi’s concerts when the guru as was his wont with his students, allowed him manodharma interludes. Subrahmaniam’s raga delineations were filled with bhava while never losing sight of the inherent grammar. He often remarked that music should be so as to touch the heart, not just an intellectual exercise.

To read full story, visit sruti.com and buy Sruti 374

Sunday, 4 November 2018

R K Singhajit Singh

Birthdays & Anniversaries


Kalamandalam Sathyabhama

Birthdays & Anniversaries

4.11.1937 - 13.9.2015
Kalamandalam V. Sathyabhama, hailed as the “mother of Mohini Attam”. The art form has lost a personwho nurtured it and was one of its strongest pillars. Her contribution to the sustenance of Mohini Attam, as we see it today, is unmatched.

Sathyabhama’s last recorded interview was for me, and I am glad that I videographed this historic document for my personal footage. In December last year, she allowed my men to video-shoot her class at the Kalamandalam as a visiting professor.

 Sathyabhama was born on 4 November 1937 to Kadambatt Krishnan Nair from Thalassery (Kannur) and Venat Ammini Amma in Shoranur (Palakkad). Recalling her childhood she told me, “I became interested in dance, watching classes at my school, Ezhuthachan UP School, Shoranur. So while studying in the fifth standard I started training in dance with a teacher called Balan.

He visited my home and taught me a couple of items such as Siva-Parvati nrittam and Pooja dance. My father had passed away, but my mother and brother appreciated my interest in dance. Some of the neighbours frowned at me – a girl from a decent Nair family being trained in dance. But we ignored it. We were inspired by the music and dance of T.R. Rajakumari, Sai-Subbulakshmi, and Baby Kamala in Tamil films, which we passionately loved. The brothers Achutha Warrier and Krishnankutty Warrier, who were teaching Bharatanatyam at Kalamandalam, were staying in a rented house near the institution. Arrangements were made for me to learn Bharatanatyam from them as a private student along with my teacher Balan Master. After some time when Balan Master left Shoranur, my dance training stopped as I was twelve and found it difficult to go alone for dance training to a house where only two men lived.

Saturday, 3 November 2018

Pran Nath

Birthdays & Anniversaries
3.11.1918 - 13.6.1996

KGS Confers Choodamani Awards

The Sangeeta Choodamani and Acharya Choodamani titles were conferred on Kadri Gopalnath (saxophone) and Suguna Varadachari (musician-guru) respectively, by G.K. Vasan, president of the Tamil Manila Congress, during the inaugural function of the 63rd Gokulashtami Sangeetha Utsavam on 1 September at Sri Krishna Gana Sabha, Chennai. Sangita Kalanidhi T.V. Gopalakrishnan and Prof. Mysore V. Subramanya felicitated the awardees. Office bearers of YCPA Sri Krishna Gana Sabha Trust were also present.

Friday, 2 November 2018

Alepey Venkatesan

Birthdays & Anniversaries

Lalit Arpan Festival of Dance and Music

The 17th edition of the Lalit Arpan Festival conducted in Delhi on 27 and 28 September 2018 was a rasika’s delight. It was well organized under the guidance of guru Shovana Narayan, Jyotsna Suri and Harish Narula. The festival commenced with the conferring of the Lalit Arpan Samman on stalwarts like Guru Birju Maharaj (Lifetime Samman), Iqbal Ahmed Khan and Alka Raghuvanshi.

The festival started on a high note with the energetic Kathak performance of young Mrinalini, a student of guru Shovana Narayan since the age of six. Mrinalini’s pleasant disposition and confidence as a dancer reflected the hours of practice that led to her commendable presentation. In between the performance, Mrinalini mentioned that she had grown up watching all the previous editions of the Lalit Arpan festival, and was ecstatic to be
finally performing in it.

Next was a Kuchipudi performance by Shallu Jindal, a disciple of Raja and Radha Reddy. Through her graceful movements, professional footwork and abhinaya, Shallu depicted famous stories from Lord Krishna’s childhood. Her intricate movements and balance on the brass plate, which seemed effortless, won her several rounds of applause from the audience. She also danced to a Meera bhajan (Sanson ki mala pe simruun main pee ka naam), enunciating the bhakti and rakti between two souls.

On day two of the festival, audiences were treated to Ragini Madan’s riveting Kathak performance. Another student of Shovana Narayan, Ragini’s style is a blend of the Lucknow and Jaipur gharanas. Ragini, who has been performing in the UK for more than a decade, performed in India after a gap of 12 years. Her passion for and excellence in Kathak were evident in her sweeping movements and dizzying circles. Ragini also went on to enact the sacrifice of Yasodhara, Gautama Buddha’s wife, penned by Maithili Sharan Gupt. She powerfully emoted Yasodhara’s plight and distress through her darting eye movements and beautiful expressions.

The second performance of the day was by Kristina Dolonina of Lithuania, also a student of Shovana Narayan, who danced at the Lalit Arpan Festival in 2007. The relentless speed of her turns and spins was impressive, and it was heartening to see a foreigner performing an Indian dance form so exquisitely. With a Masters in Hindi from the Jawaharlal Nehru University, she addressed the audience in flawless Hindi. Her abhinaya
piece was an interweaving of two poems by two women in two countries—India’s Mahadevi Varma and a Lithuanian poet—similar in their feelings about pain, suffering and divinity. Kristina is actively involved in promoting Kathak in her country.

A fitting finale of the two-day festival was a soulful music soiree by sitar-sarod brothers Lakshay and Ayush Mohan, who said that it was special for them to be performing in Delhi, their own city. Playing an interactive jugalbandi in raga Durga with harmonious understanding, their chemistry was perfect. Towards the end of the show, their strings strummed at lightning speed, reaching a crescendo. It enthralled the audience which broke out in resounding applause.

Overall, the Lalit Arpan Festival set high standards in both dance and music.

(Freelance writer)

Visakha Music Academy Award

Visakha Music Academy, Visakhapatnam presented the Mangalampalli Balamuralikrishna Endowment Award to Mandapaka Sarada on 7 July 2018. It was followed by her vocal concert featuring compositions of 20th century vaggeyakaras. The Academy presented the M.S. Subbulakshmi Endowment Award to vocalist Amritha Murali on 22 September 2018. The felicitation function was followed by Amritha’s vocal recital. S.V. Rangarajan (president), M.S. Srinivas (secretary), and other members were also present.

Thursday, 1 November 2018

Special Lifetime Achievement award

Ghatam maestro T.H. ‘Vikku’ Vinayakram was presented the Special Lifetime Achievement award by the Music Academy, Chennai on 10 October 2018. The evening opened with a special percussion performance, Guru Laya Samarpanam, by Vinayakram with his prime disciples. Chief guest Pandit Hariprasad Chaurasia and special guest of honour, Sangita Kalanidhi Prof. T.N. Krishnan presented the citation and medal to Vikku Vinayakram. He is the third artist to receive the special lifetime achievement award from the Music Academy after dancer Kamala Narayan and Lalgudi G. Jayaraman.


Rereading old issues of Sruti on the occasion of our 35th anniversary, we found a few names recurrently appearing in bylines of general articles on the state of music and dance marked by acute observation and deep sensitivity to aesthetics and standards. Ramaswamy R. Iyer’s was a wise voice from Delhi that stood for some uncompromising values in Carnatic music, a voice unafraid to express original views. S. Sankaranarayanan practically created a new genre of writing with his Stamps series, giving biographical writing on artists a philatelic twist as it were, and revealing deep knowledge of both music and musicians as well as complete authority in the field of stamps. Sriram V. has carved a niche for himself as a raconteur and chronicler capable of both sparkling humour and profound empathy with his subjects. By his own admission, writing for Sruti, especially profiles and the Sangeeta Sthalam series, helped him to grow into the historian he is recognised as today. Chithra Madhavan brings an intimate knowledge of temple architecture, sculpture and history to her heritage column, which is touched by deep love and knowledge of her subject. Charukesi writes his interviews with great empathy, and violinist R.K. Shriramkumar is a great asset to us as a willing contributor of knowledgeable but eminently readable inputs on music and musicians.

Indira Parthasarathy’s return to Chennai a few years ago from the US proved to be a godsend for us, as we were able to persuade him to write a column on theatre. It sparkles with wisdom and a lifetime of accumulated experience—writing, reading, watching plays and teaching theatre. His all-time favourite may be William Shakespeare, but his pride in Indian dramatics and knowledge of the subject have added a new dimension of authenticity to our theatre pages. V.A.K. Ranga Rao’s idiosyncratic way of presenting his views, on mainly dance, is always founded on depth and an eye for detail, a quality that makes his reviews of books and performances quite unique. Sujatha Vijayaraghavan’s writing on dance is both thought provoking and scholarly, but often reflects her capacity for lateral thinking as a creative writer of merit herself.

Sruti is what it is because of the selfless way all these writers have strengthened our hands.

In this issue we are happy to present an account of the grand golden jubilee celebrations of Bharata Kalanjali—the dance institution established by the Dhananjayans in Chennai. The duo have been good friends of Sruti from its inception, having participated in many of our endeavours. Dhananjayan has been an active contributor to Sruti Box and has been encouraging artists to subscribe to Sruti during his tours abroad. It is indeed a milestone to successfully run a dance school for five decades and Sruti congratulates the dedicated duo and their team.

An interview with senior Bharatanatyam dancer Roja Kannan, who has been in the field for about 45 years and recently donned the mantle of ABHAI president, underlines the importance of hard work, a never-say-die attitude and the need to develop a passion for the art to be able to lead from the front. Another interview with the multifaceted young theatre actor-writer Irawati Karnik, brings the curtains down on the very interesting series on eminent women in theatre by Mahesh Elkunchwar—one of India’s most distinguished playwrights. There are, of course, the regular series, news reports, and comments on issues of topical interest.

The #MeToo movement seems to be having tremendous resonance in the worlds of music and dance in India as much as in the film industry. For the first time, several artists, most of them youngsters, have come together to condemn sexual harassment in the community. The movement has taken the arts world by storm—many of those named have been denied performance slots or have been dislodged from their positions of power. This is an opportunity to create a cleaner, more ethical ecosystem where men and women can pursue artistic activity without fear of demands in cash and kind.